Word Formation Processes In English Pdf

English words make up a high percentage of everything we read or write. The criteria for assigning word-formation processes to the first or the second group are rarely specified, if at all. The author begins with an introduction of his method which he describes as a 'referent-conceptmeaning' form approach to word formation. Levels of Difficulty : Elementary Intermediate Advanced. WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH 1 1. edu) University of Oklahoma. It is accomplished by means of a large number of small "bits" of the english language which are not usually given separate listings in dictionaries. The act or process of changing something from one form to another. But the best way to help may not be what you think. It is not so obvious that the word unexpected expresses a ‘property’, but it is an adjective nonetheless. [[[ green ] ish ] ness] [un [break [able]]]. The third part of the Reading and Use of English paper in the C1 Advanced Examination is word formation where you have to use a root such as 'able' and create an appropriate word (disable, unable, ability) to fill the gap in a text. Derivational Affixes Reduplication in English Reduplication is an incredibly common word-formation process across languages. Production, consumption and capital formation are called the basic economic activities of an economy. The data of suppletion and internal change could not be found. This is described by an onomasiological model, which takes as its point of departure the naming needs of a speech community, and proceeds through conceptual reflection of extra. Word formation. Internal Structure of a Word. Persian shares. The second main objective of the present paper is precisely to argue that it is necessary. This book is the second edition of a highly successful introduction to the study of word-formation, that is. There is little difference between a compound noun and two separate nouns used one after the other, e. There are many prefixes and suffixes. Use the words given in CAPITALS to form a word that fits into the gap. Get help with your writing. Clinical Psycholinguistics: Normal and pathological language;. Word Formation In English, many of the words we know, both new and old, are formed from roots in the classical languages, Greek and Latin. ENGLISH FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE EXTRA NOTES #3 EHSAN AKHGARI OCTOBER 2007 Word Formation: Prefixes & Suffixes. Overall, our models reveal. These an-ecdotal observations suggest that certain new features of written language are part of the us-. Domínguez Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona ABSTRACT Morphology is atlracting more and more the interest of linguists. The most problematic point concerning availability is the notion of ‘mor-phological process’ (or often called ‘word formation rule’) itself. Human episodic memory. Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. If a candidate achieves a Grade A in their exam, they will receive the Certificate in Advanced English stating that they demonstrated ability at Level C2. Clippings are, also, known as "shortenings. Phonology: Knowledge of the sound system (which sounds are in that language and which are not (kh®œn) - inventory: (paradigmatic relations) Pl. Such as un-, mis-, pre-. Word formation 80 4. The word-formation theory is often avoided in English language course books and little research is conducted on the pedagogical status of word-building process. This book is the second edition of a highly successful introduction to the study of word-formation, that is. On the other hand, the students at the. When a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form, the process is called clipping/truncation. tional processes governing word formation. -but individual word formation rules in a language show a great deal of diversity in terms of input classes, semantic, and structural relations. Purchasing medicine. English 121 22 English word formation Identifying morphemes. Word formation - 1. Word Formation: Diminutives. The third part of the Reading and Use of English paper in the C1 Advanced Examination is word formation where you have to use a root such as 'able' and create an appropriate word (disable, unable, ability) to fill the gap in a text. pdf Dr Seuss - The Butter Battle Book. We help our customers create, deliver and optimize content and applications. we try to point out which of the two analyzed languages uses derivational process in word-forming and which one uses inflection as a main word-formation process. The most common ones are shown here, followed by examples of how they are used in the process of word formation. c K T Khader. Coinage/Invention; Borrowing; Compounding; Blending; Clipping/Truncation; Backformation; Conversion. Put simply, a back-formation is a shortened word (such as edit) created from a longer word (editor). (1) Linguistic knowledge for linguists. What it means for a word formation process to be morphologically productive is controversial and various views exist concerning the definition of morphological productivity. In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem. 3 graded exercises to practise prefixes, suffixes and both (includes a word search, a matching activity and a gap-filling exercise with pics). Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. What word-formation process is involved in the formation of this word? SUPPLETION__ 9. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. VERBS: NOUN: ADJECTIVE: ADVERB: enable: ability: able unable: ably : absence absentee: absent : accident: accidental : accommodate: accomodation : acknowledge. processes in English. FCE USE OF ENGLISH PART 3 WORD FORMATION. English grammar PDF free to download. What word-formation process is involved in the formation of this word? SUPPLETION__ 9. 01 pages i-viii prelims 181001 3: 42 pm Page iii. by Team Guffo · August 31, 2017 The littlest units of dialect that have a significance or a linguistic capacity and frame. Example of thesis statement topic sentence. Below you can see a set of instructions for making Cottage Cheese. A unit of study about the 9 major processes that are used for English word formation. by Bob Wilson at autoenglish. This thesis entitled Word Formation found in Jakarta Post’s Headline news on January 12, 2011, is intended to answer two problems: 1) To find out the word formations in the Jakarta Post's Headline news on January 12, 2011, 2) To find out the function of the word formations found in Jakarta Post's Headlines news on January 12, 2011. In the age of information, we are in constant need of new words to describe emerging concepts. •Infixation is a process of inserting a new morpheme inside a stem, in a particular position. How to prepare for IELTS Writing 7 Task 1 - Processes or flow charts Look at the example below. Process (Prior to Technical Evaluation) Elaborate on information provided in Form IIA. To print the full list of compound nouns list in Microsoft word format. Human episodic memory. English Morphology. Temarios elaborados por ElTemario. • Here the addition ‘ness’ is a suffix. In the context of a Festschrift for Lachlan, we might ask what the function of word-formation is. Word Formation in German: While the German language has always been particularly willing to borrow from other languages to build its vocabulary, one of its glories is its ability to create new words by combining elements from within its own repertoire. Hence, it is very important to know about basic morphology in order to understand Morphophonemic processes. Forma una nuova parola a partire da quella data in stampatello alla fine di ogni frase. Morphological rules of word formation are complex. a handbag the weekend football a guidebook my bedroom We stress the first part of the word: a 'handbag. You need one pack. Description. 8 parts of speech, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. What word-formation process is involved in the formation of this word? SUPPLETION__ 9. Consumption Human wants coming under consumption is the starting point of economic activity. MORPHOLOGY: THE WORDS OF LANGUAGE Overview: What is MORPHOLOGY? Why is important? Morphology is the study of word structure and word formation. Languages have two different kinds of morphological relationships. MINOR WORD FORMATION PROCESSES (Occur less frequently in the English language) Acronym Words that are formed from the initials of several words. stem: unlockable stem: unlock sux: -able pre x: un- root: lock stem: unlockable stem: lockable root: lock sux: -able pre x: un-. often described as one of the minor word-formation processes. ENGLISH FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE EXTRA NOTES #3 EHSAN AKHGARI OCTOBER 2007 Word Formation: Prefixes & Suffixes. For our problem of defining what a word is, such cases are rather. pdf If I ran the Zoo. The Word Formation panels that follow. adjectives to nouns and conversely are both very common and unnotable in English; Similar To Word Formation Conversion. Compounding 4. Let us take a closer look at how new words come into being by analyzing the underlying morphological operations involved. Formation meaning in Urdu: بناوٹ - Banawat meaning, Definition Synonyms at English to Urdu dictionary gives you the best and accurate urdu translation and meanings of Formation and Banawat Meaning. Euphemism and lexical creation / Euphemism as a word-formation process The English word “euphemism” is found for the first time in a book written in 1656 by Thomas Blount, Glossographia [Burchfield 1985: 13]; it comes from Greek euphèmismos, which is itself derived from the adjective euphèmos , “of good omen” (from eu , ‘good’, and phèmi , ‘I say’). Beata Kopecka, University of Rzeszów, Poland; Folk-etymologies: On the way to improving naturalness. The two languages make extensive use of various word building processes to enrich their vocabularies.  Adverb + noun. This result appears due to the fact that the character’s names in the two comics were a sample of compounding process. This paper presents a technique for building lexical subsystems which embody these principles by emulating the behavior of word formation rules. 0 Introduction of word formation in English Word formation in English can be described as a branch of Lexicology. Acronyms provide a way of shortening phrases into words. We strive to support all major Office document formats in standard use today. As a result,. As word-formation processes, such as abbreviation and acronymization, demand minimum amount of processing effort by the recipient in line with rel-evance theory (RT), this may suggest that these word-forma-tion processes are more likely to spread compared with other ones. faxfor facsimile, flufor Influenza, examfor examination. Derivation Derivation = all aspects of word structure involving affixation that is not inflectional • derivation relates different lexemes to each other, while inflection relates different word forms to each other. These levels are briefly stated below. Apart from these major word-formation processes, English calls upon a number of minor devices, such as coinages which are the creation of new words on the basis of old, such as (4) acronyms , (5) blends, (6) clippings, (7) back formation, (8) folk etymology, (9) eponyms, (10) onomatopoeic expressions, and finally, (11) word manufacture coinages. (*)more small (see Poser 1992, who distinguishes morphological vs. a word of one type, usually a noun, is reduced to form a word of another type, usually a verb. entered English as a back-formation from editor. Word Formation Test Exercises - Multiple Choice Questions With Answers - Advanced Level 40 39 Free Online English Grammar Quizzes - Tests - Exercises About Word Formation Test Exercises - Multiple Choice Questions With Answers - Advanced Level 40. Putnam (eds. These include the following: compounding, affixation and incorporation. But the result is the same: New words are always created and added to the dictionary of the language. 5 lexicalization beyond words 370 rochelle lieber: english word-formation processes 375 1. It is a word or part of a word that has meaning. INFLECTION = the process by which affixes combine with roots to indicate basic. Singular and plurals 15. Firstly, the paper introduces word formation as to definition and processes, along with a few. 4 Presence (represented as. edu) University of Oklahoma. Advisor: Arif Suryo Priyatmojo, S. Lieber 2009a. Slang bouncing out of California, and Spanish moving comfortably into. words together). Clipping in English gave rise to words such as fax from facsimile, gym from gymnasium, and. These new terms passed series of word formation processes before they were used in daily life. Articles worksheets are in PDF Format and consist of a worksheet and answer sheet to check your results. Suffixes serve a grammatical function. complex word formation processes, there was need to first create a task such that one could deduce from the child's behavior the structure of his inner knowledge of word suffixing processes. Formation Of Adjectives 1. When you look up a word in a dictionary, see if you can form other words from it. the creation of a new word as nothing more than a sequence of letters or phonemes. (1) The process or result of forming new words, called derived words, from words or word groups with the same root. • Prefixes: beginning of words & change the meaning (un+happy=unhappy). • the relationship between the internal structure of a word and its mean-ing (Chapter 7) • productive versus unproductive word-forming processes (Chapter 8) • historical reasons for some of the contemporary divisions within English morphology, especially Germanic versus Romance word-formation processes (Chapter 9). This word-formation process in Mandarin is exemplified by the forms 1 My special thanks to Rint Sybesma (Leiden University) for helping me in writing and revising this paper. 3 Finding morphemes in other languages Linguists study languages they don’t speak. grade worksheets armadillo word formation doc. Linguistics Ch. 3 Compounding NIGEL FABB 1 Overview A compound is a word which consists of two or more words. In writing, individual morphemes are usu-ally represented by their graphic form, or spelling; e. Infixation. Research paper human sexuality. In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem. From July 1, 2018, we will not automatically provide authors free print journals. As pointed out earlier, word-formation tries to explain the processes through which we can create new word forms. The answer could be a noun or an adjective. Acronymy is one of the important processes of word formation. Let us take a closer look at how new words come into being by analyzing the underlying morphological operations involved. People produce new terms for naming their new inventions or products. Suffixes serve a grammatical function. If I describe a song as “Black Sabbath-esque,” even if you have never heard that word before you know what I mean. This book English grammar book will help students learn about basic grammar, they will learn about the following. Rochelle Lieber “A Lexical Semantic Approach to Compounding” (Ch 5), in Rochelle Lieber &. ’It’proceeds’fromthe. chapters 4 through 6 deal with the different kinds of word-formation processes that can be found in English: chapter 4 discusses affixation, chapter 5 non-affixational processes, chapter 6 compounding. Prepared by teachers of the best CBSE schools in India. Some languages, like ancient Greek or Georgian, have a great deal of inflectional morphology, while others (like English) have much less, and some (like Vietnamese) have hardly any at all. RAM = Random Access Memory CD = Compact Disk BLENDING Process of creating a new word by combining the parts of two different words, usually the beginning of one word and the end of another. English language learners in their journey of language acquisition and therefore expedite the. This then follows with a contextualised sentence gap fill using these words. Clipping is a process in which a part of an original word IS removed. the formation of words in a language by the processes of derivation and composition…. On the other hand, the students at the. Process of English Word Formation Found in Advertisement Boards in Kendal Regency. The most common word formation. Printable wide-ruled sheets provide practice forming uppercase and lowercase letters. The third part of the Use of English paper in the First Certificate Examination is word formation where students use a root such as 'able' and create an appropriate word (disable, unable, ability) to fill the gap in a text. Processes of word formation are the bases upon which words are formed in a language. Look before and after each dictionnary entry to see what words you can find formed from the same basic word. Word-formation is the study of words, dealing with the construction or formation rules of words in a certain language. Word formation - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary. Compounding is the process of joining two or more words together to form new words; in the case of the German language, the more the merrier (just read Mark Twain's A Tramp Abroad ). Back clipping or apocopation is the most common type, in which the beginning is retained. Study the various related words in each family. language learning process. • Here the addition ‘ship’ is a suffix. by Bob Wilson at autoenglish. The articles in this series define and exemplify the most common word formation processes, or the creation of new words, in English including derivation, back-formation, conversion, compounding, clipping, blending, abbreviations, acronyms, eponyms, coinages, nonce words, borrowing, and calquing. Click the UPLOAD FILES button and select up to 20 PDF files you wish to convert. Compounds are subject to phonological and morpholo-gical processes, which may be specific to compounds or may be shared with. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 5 Word Formation. All these processes can be comprised by one, more general term, namely the process of word-formation. Editions for Word-Formation in English: 0521525632 (Paperback published in 2003), (Kindle Edition published in 2003), 1316623297 (Paperback published in. English grammar PDF free to download. Live worksheets > English > English as a Second Language (ESL) > Word Formation > FCE Word Formation FCE Word Formation This is to practice word formation exercises for the FCE exam. I show how constructional approaches can account for both grammaticalization and lexicalization within a unified framework, basing my argument around the two kinds of input to lexicalization which Brinton & Traugott (2005: 96) identify: syntactic constructions and word formation patterns. The main process of word formation in English is derivation, which is a category of affixation. The study of the origin of the word Etymology comes from Latin but has Greek roots ( etymon ‘original from’+ logia ‘study of’) Attitude towards new words entering a language Handbook –aviation in the 19 th century Computerand radio in Arabic Ways in which a word can enter a language. 1) and absence. Comparisons are made among English, French, German, and Swedish, elucidating the formation processes and the differences in word-formation traditions, entomological history, and society they may reflect. In English, Word formation processes include etymology, coinage, borrowing, compounding, blending, clipping, backformation, conversion, acronyms and derivations. numbered You should have strong vocabulary knowledge to solve these types of questions. This word-formation process in Mandarin is exemplified by the forms 1 My special thanks to Rint Sybesma (Leiden University) for helping me in writing and revising this paper. For our problem of defining what a word is, such cases are rather. Word puzzles 12.  Preposition + noun, such as in-crowd or off-islander. Fill in the blanks with suitable forms of words given : Fill in the blanks with suitable forms of words given EXERCISE Noun Adjective Person concerned 1. 3 Language families by word-formation process occurrence or not 314 7. Back clipping b. The last word formation process is conversion, this is simply to change from a noun to a verb or vice versa, which changes the role of how that word is used. In English language as in many other languages there are a lot of different types of word building or word formation, also called word manufacturing. We even have it in English (to a limited extent): “Is she just sort of a friend, or is she a. Handout 3: Word formation in English 1. This includes Word, Excel, Powerpoint, OpenOffice, text, and SRT formats. VERB The verb class includes most of the words referring to actions and processes, including main verbs like draw, provide, differ, and go. The act, process or result of changing from one form or language into another. introduction 375 2. This paper discusses word formation in both English and Arabic. WORD FORMATION PPT - authorSTREAM Presentation. This book English grammar book will help students learn about basic grammar, they will learn about the following. Patterns Seen In Some Of The Newest Word Formations The corpus helps to identify the most productive ways in which new words and expressions are coined, and to rank the popularity of coinages. The latter of the two does not change the structure of the reiterated word. The word formation linguistic disciplines and subject of it research. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog, dogs, and dog-catcher are closely related. Try to determine the process before you consult a dictionary, though it may be necessary for you to do so. If I describe a song as “Black Sabbath-esque,” even if you have never heard that word before you know what I mean. Blending Blending is one of the most beloved of word formation processes in English. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. `Minor types of word formation INTRODUCTION. Since children often make words too, the study of historical language change has potential relevance to study of child language. However, there is evidence that Ojibwe verbs of the type illustrated in (1) undergo a different kind of denominal verb process from the one exhibited in English or French. And if you want to measure your level of understanding, please open 'exercises' menu. The word 56 3. With this concern in mind, the goal of this project is to consult Gitksan speakers to document the word formation processes available for neologism creation. Linguistics Ch. For creating recruitment advertisements or to conduct the hiring process with precision, professional job description statements are required. _____is a processes of word formation whereby new words are formed by subtracting a root by deleting final syllable which is misunderstood as a suffix?. 21st CENTURY ENGLISH VOCABULARY Sue Engineer English constantly renews itself by borrowing, coining, and combining words to fit new ideas and new developments, and that process has never been more apparent than in this, the last decade of the 20th century. Patterns and Meanings of English Words through Word Formation Processes of Acronyms, Clipping, Compound and Blending Found in Internet-Based Media This research aims to explore the word-formation process in English new words found in the internet-based media through acronym, compound, clipping and blending and their meanings. The deletion of a part of a word resulting in a new and shorter word. how to decompose a word into morpheme. The head of ‘freeze-dry’ is a verb thus the compound is a verb. VERBS TO NOUNS EXERCISE. numbered You should have strong vocabulary knowledge to solve these types of questions. As one of the word-formation processes: compounding, clipping, backformation,. All these processes can be comprised by one, more general term, namely the process of word-formation. The processes consist of clipping, blending, acronymy, back-formation, folk etymology, and antonomasia. The portable document format supports complex layouts and is useful for documents with images and tables or scientific documents containing many formulas. vowels & consonants b. 3 Polysemy 68 3. 4 unpredictable & playful formations, analogy, fads, and new developments 369 4. NOUN WORD FORM; Adding a suffix to a verb form is one way of forming a noun. New words are added either through the word formation processes available to the language or through borrowing. There is little difference between a compound noun and two separate nouns used one after the other, e. The word root path comes from the Greek word pathos,which means 'suffering'. Hence, it is very important to know about basic morphology in order to understand Morphophonemic processes. Clippings are, also, known as "shortenings. Chapter 7: Words and Word formation Processes What are the different methods of word-formation? The common of word-formation methods are: affixation, compounding, blending, clipping, backformation, conversion, coinage, acronyms and borrowing. c K T Khader. You must be logged in while solving the tests so that they can be marked with such an icon. Group C: Word-formation Processes and Americanism One question of 12 marks out of two Group D: Consonant Shift, Makers of English Language (Shakespeare, Milton & the Bible) One question of 8 marks out of three 12x1 = 12 8x1 = 8 Total 20 Recommended Reading: Otto Jespersen: Growth and Structure of the English Language (Chapters 4, 5, 6, 8, 10). It is thus not surprising that classical authors were concerned with the structure of words. For example, the Malay compound mata-hari ‘sun’ is a word which consists of two words: mata ‘eye’ and hari ‘day’. chapters 4 through 6 deal with the different kinds of word-formation processes that can be found in English: chapter 4 discusses affixation, chapter 5 non-affixational processes, chapter 6 compounding. 15 Word formation. Englicious (C) Survey of English Usage, UCL, 2012-19. EXAM DESCRIPTION. The resulting words are called blends. It’s something to keep in mind when writing since the main change has to do with writers no longer automatically referring to an. word-formation, word formation, and wordformation, all of them attested), and even where the spelling is conventionalized, similar words are often spelled differently, as evidenced with grapefruit vs. English Morphology. • Here the addition ‘ship’ is a suffix. It is used to find the types of English word formation and representation of types of English word formation in Tempo English version magazine. It is thus not surprising that classical authors were concerned with the structure of words. 1) and absence. In the study of word formation, the focus has often been on generating the form. From July 1, 2018, we will not automatically provide authors free print journals. Arrange in alphabetical order 13. An introduction to Early Modern English, this book helps students of English and linguistics to place the language of the period 1500-1700 in its historical context as a language with a common core but also as one which varies across time, regionally and socially, and according to register. Part of the reason is that circumfixation is not attested in many languages as the other types of affixation. numbered You should have strong vocabulary knowledge to solve these types of questions. processes in English. This paper aims to shed more light on current Anglicisms in terms of noun phrase formation and adaptation from economic terminology into the Croatian language. Coinage/Invention; Borrowing; Compounding; Blending; Clipping/Truncation; Backformation; Conversion. A practical oe with a brief explanation on word formation. In the age of information, we are in constant need of new words to describe emerging concepts. We can very quickly understand a new word in our language (a neologism) and accept the use of different forms of that new word. ’ 2’ ’ Thepresentationthatfollowsisorganizedaccordingtothetraditionalhierarchyof ’ grammatical’phenomena’in’linguistics. These new terms passed series of word formation processes before they were used in daily life. Describe some of the minor processes of word formation in English and their contribution to the enrichment of the English word-store. Similarly, it is not so clear that the noun problem names a person, place or thing. Chapter 7 is devoted to two theoretical issues, the role of phonology in word-formation, and the nature of word-formation rules. Nian Liu (nian. 7 Summary 55 3. For example, the Malay compound mata-hari ‘sun’ is a word which consists of two words: mata ‘eye’ and hari ‘day’. Download Suffixes in word-formation processes in scientific English book pdf free download link or read online here in PDF. capable of determining the grammaticality and cultural appropriateness of a Gitksan word means that completion of this project sooner than later is imperative. Compounding is the process of joining two or more words together to form new words; in the case of the German language, the more the merrier (just read Mark Twain's A Tramp Abroad ). 6 Summary 7g 4. Word formation 80 4. Sparepart, Word Formation Processes. The rules. • The relationship between frequency and collocation: the more frequent a word is, the more. A word and its structure. Handbook of word-formation. If you find this puzzling, two things may help: Inflectional morphology is much easier to recognize. • The most common word-formation process. Suffix Meaning Key Word. The added morpheme might or might not be further modified and on the basis of this division one can distinguish partial and complete variants or reduplication. words together). Literature review on premenstrual syndrome. noun), but which have complex multi-word syntactic structure. Interaction of Morphology and Phonology There are many interactions between phonological forms and morphological structures (which we shall discuss in the later chapters). went MINOR WORD FORMATION PROCESSES (Occur less frequently in the English language) Acronym Words that are formed from the initials of several words. English language – Word formation. Examples: charge, comment, contract, copy, debate, design, hope, look, plan, reply, study. British English, American English, and Indian English: Major characteristics *Course Work for Term – I A) Introduction to Three Components of Language Study 1) Morphology What is Morphology? Concepts of morpheme & allomorph, Types of morpheme, Word formation Processes. "In linguistics, conversion, also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation involving the creation of a word (of a new word class) from an existing word (of a different word class) without any change in form,3 which is to say, derivation using only zero. A Comparative Analysis on Word Formation Processes in English and Sinhala Rev. But the result is the same: New words are always created and added to the dictionary of the language. The word-formation theory is often avoided in English language course books and little research is conducted on the pedagogical status of word-building process. Noun: Number, Gender Word Formation Process Origin of English Words Important PDF Books Links. Word formation 1 Compounds A Compound nouns A compound noun can be formed by joining two nouns together, e. 1 Why study word. _____is a processes of word formation whereby new words are formed by subtracting a root by deleting final syllable which is misunderstood as a suffix?. Looking at Interlanguage Processes 9. com provides study materials for Intermediate, EAMCET. Processes of word-formation (enriching the Lexicon) 11 Processes of word-formation There are systematic word-formation processes that take place across human languages. Wenn überhaupt, würde "discharge of pus" dem Begriff abeitern entsprechen. In linguistics this kind of word formation is termed as Conversion or Zero derivation. • Morphemes are the smallest units in the structural analysis of words. The problem of the study is that the students at the Department of English cannot produce acronyms or discern their origins. 005 English word formation 245 Examine the following examples and identify which one of the following processes is used in their derivations: acronyms, derivation, conversion, borrowing, compounding, reduplication, clipping.